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byname DANIEL OF GALICIA, Russian DANILO, or DANIIL, ROMANOVICH, or
DANILO GALITSKY (b. 1201--d. 1264), ruler of the principalities of Galicia
and Volhynia (now in Poland and the Ukraine, respectively), who became
one of the most powerful princes in east-central Europe.
Son of Prince Roman Mstislavich, Daniel was only four years old when
his father, who had united Galicia and Volhynia, died in a battle against
the Poles (1205). Not until 1221 did Daniel begin to overthrow other pretenders
to Roman's succession and assert his authority over Volhynia; and only
in 1238 did he finally gain control of Galicia. He then directed his efforts
toward enriching his domain, encouraging migrants to settle there, building
cities, including Lvov and Chelm, and promoting the development of a flourishing
trade through his lands.
After the Mongol invasions (1240-41), however, Daniel was compelled
to recognize the khan's suzerainty. Despite his acknowledged allegiance
to the khan, he developed close relations with his western neighbours,
hoping thus to secure allies who would support his attempt to overthrow
the Mongol overlords. To further this plan, he married his sons into the
ruling houses of Hungary, Austria, and Lithuania and promised to acknowledge
the pope as head of the church in his realm.
No military aid was forthcoming, however, and in 1256 Daniel launched
his own campaign and drove the Mongols out of Volhynia (c. 1257). But in
1260 another Mongol force entered Volhynia and forced Daniel to destroy
the fortifications he had constructed in his major cities. The invaders
withdrew but asserted the permanency of their authority by leaving administrative
agents to collect taxes and recruit soldiers. Daniel, giving up plans of
resistance, lived the rest of his life as an obedient, if a reluctant,
vassal of the khan.
Daniel of Galicia - wiki
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